AMQP Support in Hyrax

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Figure 1. Hyrax Architecture at a High-level

Support for AMQP in hyrax is best handled by adding a new front-end to the server that can act as an AMQP client, reading information from an AMQP queue. Hyrax has an overall architecture that already supports this. Figure one shows a high-level view of the Hyrax architecture. The BES is the part f Hyrax that builds the bodies of a DAP response. The front-end (the OLFS) contains a set of handlers which respond to requests made using HTTP. Based on the request, the OLFS sends commands over a stateful connection to the BES asking it to make the correct response. Generally, the OLFS will have to parse the request URL and pass information from that URL to the BES. Even though the OLFS is designed to support several different 'protocols' like DAP or THREDDS, it is capable of responding to HTTP only (it is a Java Servlet; see Server Dispatch Operations for information about the OLFS design, implementation and extension capabilities). Thus, it makes the most sense to build a new front-end dedicated to AMQP.

While the architecture chosen to add support for AMQP is very important, other considerations are also critical to the success of the overall effort to run DAP over AMQP. One is the mapping between different DAP versions to AMQP. Since DAP was designed with HTTP in mind, how DAP and AMQP can best be matched merits serious consideration. This will entail looking at the current DAP implementation along with the evolving DAP, version 4, specification and its implementation.

1 Proposed Architecture for AMQP Support in Hyrax

Figure 2. Hyrax with AMQP
Figure 2. shows how a AMQP module could be added to work with Hyrax. The diagram implies that an actual installation could support both DAP/HTTP and DAP/AMQP interactions using one BES. That might be true, or it might not, depending on how the connection pooling is handled by the OLFS and new AMQP front-end. The DAP/SOAP interface of the OLFS is really different than the other three interfaces shown in the diagram because the SOAP messaging software uses the request document body instead of the URL while the other three interfaces/protocols all use the URL and ignore the request document body. However, it's still part of the OLFS because Hyrax uses SOAP messaging over HTTP.

One option we should consider is supporting DAP over AMQP using SOAP.

1.1 Sharing one BES between two front-ends

Because there is no limit within the BES on the number of beslistener processes created, any number of front ends can make connections to the BES and holds those connection sin a pool without concern that the 'pool will fill up'. This is a result of the Unix fork/exec model and the architectural design of Hyrax that has placed limits on the number of outstanding BES connections within the OLFS. A second front end could establish its own set of connections to completely separate processes. In the OLFS, the software that manages the connections to the BES can be found in

1.2 Where's the OLFS' 'main'?

To see where the OLFS starts running, look at ServletDispatch. This class' init() method is the first code run by the servlet engine when it starts.

1.3 How the OLFS connects to the BES

On start-up the OLFS makes a connection to the BES. When the OLFS is started, the BES Daemon (besdaemon) has already started and bound a well-known port (10022 by default; set in both the bes and olfs configuration files). The OLFS starts when Tomcat starts or restarts the servlet and initially makes a pool of connections. These are really TCP socket connections to specific instances of the BES listener (beslistener). When the OLFS gets a request it needs to process using the BES, it checks this pool of connections and picks the next available one. If no connections are available, then a new connection is made unless the maximum number of allowed connections have already been made. In the latter case the request for a the next available connection blocks until there is an available connection. The maximum number of connections to the BES, which is really the maximum number of BES listeners (i.e., processes) to make is set in the OLFS configuration file.

To see how the OLFS does this, look at,, and

Important points:

  1. Because the OLFS would block indefinitely if all of the beslisteners get 'stuck', the OLFS uses and inactivity timeout to kill beslisteners. (This is not the case in Hyrax 1.5 but will be in Hyrax 1.6; 300 seconds, hard coded, but it could be a configuration parameter).
  2. The OLFS will dump connections from the pool after 2000 commands have been sent to a particular beslistener. This parameter is hard coded into the OLFS, but it could be read from the configuration file.
  3. The OLFS initially makes zero connections and it makes new connections only when a request for a connection indicates that no available connections are in the pool. Thus, even though the maximum number of connections is set at N, there will only be N instances of the beslistener and N entries in the pool of connections if there's a need for N simultaneous connections.
  4. The besdaemon and master beslistener do not know about the child processes that have been created.

1.4 Abstracting the OLFS/BES connection logic

To see how to abstract the connection logic so that the OLFS' connection pooling and configuration logic can be reused with a different transport protocol, look at the class. This class effectively implements a simple interface with the methods:

Make the object that holds state for the request
Connect to a new BES listener
send request
Given that a connection to a server exists, send a request
process response
Wait for, and then process, a response to a request
Deallocate resources associated with this connection

In the explanation above, I used the word connection but it is really a virtual connection. In Java the InetAddress and Socket classes abstract the operations of socket-based IPC. the actual transport can be TCP, UDP, ...

Todo: Extrapolate from this class an interface, make this class implement that interface and then write an second class that provides for TCP tunneling over AMQP (for example) with a second implementation of that interface. It may also be that RabbitMQ provides a tight enough integration with Java's IPC classes that a more straightforward implantation is possible.

1.5 How the current OLFS dispatching works

Figure 3. The current OLFS implementation is tightly coupled with the Servlet classes, especially the HttpServletRequest and Response classes

The OLFS is a dispatch handler, a giant switch statement that looks at each incoming request and shunts it to the correct software for processing. In many cases the BES is not actually involved in the processing or is involved in only a tangential way. In fact, however, the OLFS' dispatch code is more sophisticated than a switch statement. Instead it consists of two layers of processing where the outer layer is made up of a set of DispatchHandler classes. Each of these classes implements the DispatchHandler interface. This interface has five methods:

Initialize the handler; called when the OLFS starts
Called when a new request is presented to the OLFS and the dispatch logic is looking for a handler to process it. Returns true or false.
Perform whatever is required to build a response and process it
Ask the BES for the last modified date of some resource that's central to processing the request.
Remove the dispatch handlers

Three of these methods take the request (i.e., HttpServletRequest) object defined by the Servlet class (requestCanBeHandled, handleRequest and getLastModified). One of the methods also takes the response (i.e., HttpServletResponse) object from Servlet (handleRequest).

The second level of dispatch takes place within each of the classes that implement the DispatchHandler interface. Here are three examples:

Responds to requests for directory information
Responds to requests for THREDDS catalogs
Responds to requests for DAP responses

Take a look at the DapDispatchHandler to see how within that class the requests for several different requests, including some, like the ASCII response that are not strictly DAP responses, are handled.

1.6 Abstracting the request-response logic of the OLFS

Figure 4. The OLFS implemented using HyraxRequest and HyraxResponse objects. Using these factors out the coupling between Servelt and the OLFS at all but the highest levels of implementation.
Figure 5. The AMQP front end using HyraxRequest and HyraxResponse objects. This uses the same code as the OLFS with the HyraxRequest/Response objects, limiting issues with long-term maintenance.

The main obstacle we see to building a second front end for Hyrax is that the DispatchHandler interface takes instances of the HttpServletRequest and ...Response classes and then passes those along to the lowest levels of the software. This creates close coupling between the ServletRequest interfaces and the OLFS code.

However, the coupling between ServletRequest and the OLFS is not actually needed. The software could be refactored so that DispatchHandler would accept two objects more suitable to the dispatching needs of the front end (see Figure 4). At the outermost levels, in the software that calls the requestCanBeHandled and handleRequest methods, those new parameters would be the formal parameters. Instances of the proposed request and response implementations could be built from a factory that accept instances of ServletRequest and ServletResponse as well as other things such as a set of hypothetical AMQPRequest and AMQPResponse objects. Instances of the request and response implementations would be passed into the new DispatchHandler implementations, allowing them to be used by both the OLFS and the proposed AMQP front end.

1.6.1 How complex would this be to implement?

Most of the work in defining the set of values to be extracted from the HttpServletRequest object has already been done and resides in the ReqInfo class. This class has eleven (11) methods that return information needed by one or more of the dispatch handlers. Nine (9) of the methods return string values and two return boolean values. Searching within the OLFS source code, there are 128 uses of the HttpServletRequest class (excluding the experiment code and all the classes that provide support for WCS). This corresponds to 23 classes in three packages.

Replacing the HttpServletResponse object may be more complicated, depending on the capabilities of the AMQP Client software base. The servlet response provides methods to write certain specific headers that will preface the response body in HTTP's pseudo-MIME response document. The response also contains a stream used to write the body of the response, and it allows the OLFS to provide HTTP status responses. It may be that the best approach is to modify the dispatch software so that it builds two things: the response preface material and the response body. Some implementations of the HyraxResponse class would ignore the preface material (e.g., the ContentType header), others might format that in different ways. To determine more about this class' construction, we need to know what the AMQP client object expects and the facilities it provides.

Additionally, components of the OLFS need access to resources held on the local drive, both within the web applications distribution directory and in the persistent content directory used by the OLFS to hold configuration, logs, and as a pace for components to store state information. The class ServletUtil currently provides those local resources paths. This information would also need to be included in the data object that we develop to abstract the HttpServletRequest information.

2 How Best to Combine AMQP and HTTP

One approach to adapting DAP to a messaging architecture has already been implemented in our interface to Hyrax for SOAP and this might be the best starting point for an adaptation of DAP/HTTP to DAP and AMQP. One difference, however, that is likely to play a role in DAP over AMQP that doesn't show up in the SOAP interface is that DAP4 is now much farther along than when that software was written. The feature of DAP4 most important to this project is that DAP4 over HTTP no longer relies on HTTP headers as the sole way to return certain information. Instead, all information about a response is contained in the body of the response and some information is also contained in HTTP response headers to simplify writing HTTP clients and/or working with DAP2 clients. So, for example, the information about the version of DAP used to build a particular response is now part of the response body (in the <Dataset> element) and in the HTTP response header XDAP. This means that HTTP clients can figure out the version before the response document is parsed and other protocols (e.g., AMQP) can get it from the response itself.

I'll chime in here and say that as far as I can see the primary obstacle in moving the protocol to AMQP is the use of HTTP headers as the mechanism for version negotiation between the client and the server. The client tells the server what it wants and the server hands back a response that is requested version or lesser. If this was moved into the request URL via a mandatory server side function, say something like "version(x.y)" where "x" is the DAP major and "y" the DAP minor version, then I think using AMQP would simplified.--ndp 12:05, 3 December 2009 (PST)

3 See Also

  1. BES XML Commands and Hyrax - BES Client commands
  2. How to build the DataDDX response in/with Hyrax
  3. Hyrax SOAP API

4 Use Cases

In order to move forward and define the most useful way to use DAP2 and/or DAP4 over AMQP, we need to make suer there's a clear understanding of how the server is supposed to interact with the AMQP broker and how Hyrax within the OOI system will be used.

5 TODO email from John


May I explicitly ask if the report can please include the following? - a summary of work (I'm sure it will have that); - a list of issues addressed and issues identified; - a set of recommendations for going forward with additional work. (Based on your results, what do you think should be done to extend, finish, or improve these results?)

I think this shouldn't represent painful additional work, but it will be valuable to put this in place now, in preliminary form, to make sure we can have the big picture captured before the year mysteriously disappears.

I think David may be the point person to take care of a lot of this, but I wanted to surface the desired content for everyone to be aware of. Thanks, I'll go away now!