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1 Format Descriptions for Tabular Data

Format descriptions define the formats of input and output data and headers. FreeForm ND provides an easy-to-use mechanism for describing data. FreeForm ND programs and FreeForm ND-based applications that you develop use these format descriptions to correctly access data. Any data file used by FreeForm ND programs must be described in a format description file.

This chapter explains how to write format descriptions for data arranged in tabular format---rows and columns---only. For data in non-tabular formats, see the next chapter.

1.1 FreeForm ND Variable Types

The data sets you produce and use may contain a variety of variable types. The characteristics of the types that FreeForm ND supports are summarized in the table below, which is followed by a description of each type.

OPeNDAP FreeForm ND Data Types
Name Minimum Value Maximum Value Size in Bytes Precision*
char **
uchar 0 255 1
short -32,767 32,767 2
ushort 0 65,535 2
long -2,147,483,647 2,147,483,647 4
ulong 0 4,294,967,295 4
float <math>10^{-37}</math> <math>10^{38}</math> 4 6***
double <math>10^{-307}</math> <math>10^{308}</math> 8 15***
constant **
initial record length
convert **
* Expressed as the number of significant digits
** User-specified
*** Can vary depending on environment

NOTE: The sizes in table 3.1 are machine-dependent. Those given are for most Unix workstations.

The char variable type is used for character strings. Variables of this type, including numerals, are interpreted as characters, not as numbers.
The uchar (unsigned character) variable type can be used for integers between 0 and 255 (28- 1). Variables that can be represented by the uchar type (for example: month, day, hour, minute) occur in many data sets. An advantage of using the uchar type in binary formats is that only one byte is used for each variable. Variables of this type are interpreted as numbers, not characters.
A short variable can hold integers between -32,767 and 32,767 (<math>2^{15}- 1</math>). This type can be used for signed integers with less than 5 digits, or for real numbers with a total of 4 or fewer digits on both sides of the decimal point (-99 to 99 with a precision of 2, -999 to 999 with a precision of 1, and so on).
A ushort (unsigned short) variable can hold integers between 0 and 65,535 (<math>2^{16} - 1</math>).
A long variable can hold integers between -2,147,483,647 and +2,147,483,647 (<math>2^{31} - 1</math>). This variable type is commonly used to represent floating point data as integers, which may be more portable. It can be used for numbers with 9 or fewer digits with up to 9 digits of precision, for example, latitude or longitude (-180.000000 to 180.000000).
The ulong (unsigned long) variable type can be used for integers between 0 and 4,294,967,295 (<math>2^{32} - 1</math>).
float, double 
Numbers that include explicit decimal points are either float or double depending on the desired number of digits. A float has a maximum of 6 significant digits, a double has 15 maximum. The extra digits of a double are useful, for example, for precisely specifying time of day within a month as decimal days. One second of time is approximately 0.00001 day. The number specifying day (maximum = 31) can occupy up to 2 digits. A float can therefore only specify decimal days to a whole second (31.00001 occupies seven digits). A double can, however, be used to track decimal parts of a second (for example, 31.000001).
Older versions of FreeForm ND included header variables. You can now specify header formats in format description files. For details, see ( Chapter 3) and also (Chapter 4).

1.2 FreeForm ND File Types

FreeForm ND supports binary, ASCII, and dBASE file types. Binary data are stored in a fixed amount of space with a fixed range of values. This is a very efficient way to store data, but the files are machine-readable rather than human-readable. Binary numbers can be integers or floating point numbers.

Numbers and character strings are stored as text strings in ASCII. The amount of space used to store a string is variable, with each character occupying one byte.

The dBASE file type, used by the dBASE product, is ASCII text without end-of-line markers.

1.3 Format Description Files

Format description files accompany data files. A format description file can contain descriptions for one or more formats. You include descriptions for header, input, and output formats as appropriate. Format descriptions for more than one file may be included in a single format description file.

An example format description file is shown next. The sections that follow describe each element of a format description file.

/ This format description file is for
/ data files latlon.bin and latlon.dat.

binary_data "Default binary format"
latitude 1 4 long 6
longitude 5 8 long 6

ASCII_data "Default ASCII format"
latitude 1 10 double 6
longitude 12 22 double 6

Lines 1 and 2 are comment lines. Lines 4 and 8 give the format type and title, as described in (Section 3.4.1). Lines 5, 6, 9, and 10 contain variable descriptions, described in (Section 3.4.2). Blank lines signify the end of a format description

You can include blank lines between format descriptions and comments in a format description file as necessary. Comment lines begin with a slash (/). FreeForm ND ignores comments.

1.4 Format Descriptions

A format description file comprises one or more format descriptions. A format description consists of a line specifying the format type and title followed by one or more variable descriptions, as in the following example:

binary_data "Default binary format"
latitude 1 4 long 6
longitude 5 8 long 6

1.4.1 Format Type and Title

A line specifying the format type and title begins a format description. A format descriptor, for example, binary_data, is used to indicate format type to FreeForm ND. The format title, for example, "Default binary format", briefly describes the format. It must be surrounded by quotes and follow the format descriptor on the same line. The maximum number of characters for the format title is 80 including the quotes. Format Descriptors

Format descriptors indicate (in the order given) file type, read/write type, and file section. Possible values for each descriptor component are shown in the following table.

Format Descriptor Components

File Type Read/Write Type (optional) File Section
* The qualifier separate indicates there is a header file separate from the data file.

The components of a format descriptor are separated by underscores (_). For example, ASCII_output_data indicates that the format description is for ASCII data in an output file. The order of descriptors in a format description should reflect the order of format types in the file. For instance, the descriptor ASCII_file_header would be listed in the format description file before ASCII_data. The format descriptors you can use in FreeForm ND are listed in the next table, where XXX stands for ASCII, binary, or dBASE. (Example: XXX_data = ASCII_data, binary_data, or dBASE_data.)

Format Descriptors

Data Header Special
* The RETURN descriptor lets FreeForm ND skip

over end-of-line characters in the data.

** The EOL descriptor is a constant

indicating an end-of-line character should be inserted in a multi-line record.

For more information about header formats, see (Chapter 5) on page 89.

1.4.2 Variable Descriptions

A variable description defines the name, start and end column position, type, and precision for each variable. The fields in a variable description are separated by white space. Two variable descriptions are shown below with the fields indicated. Each field is then described.

Here are two example variable descriptions. Each one consists of a name, a start position, and end position, a type, and a precision.

latitude    1  10  double  6
longitude  12  22  double  6

The variable name is case-sensitive, up to 63 characters long with no blanks. The variable names in the example are latitude and longitude. If the same variable is included in more than one format description within a format description file, its name must be the same in each format description.

Start Position 

The column position where the first character (ASCII) or byte (binary) of a variable value is placed. The first position is 1, not 0. In the example, the variable latitude is defined to start at position 1 and longitude at 12.

End Position 

The column position where the last character (ASCII) or byte (binary) of a variable value is placed. In the example, the variable latitude is defined to end at position 10 and longitude at 22.


The variable type can be a standard type such as char, float, double, or a special FreeForm ND type. The type for both variables in the example is double. See (Section 3.1) for descriptions of supported types.


Precision defines the number of digits to the right of the decimal point. For float or double variables, precision only controls the number of digits printed or displayed to the right of the decimal point in an ASCII representation. The precision for both variables in the example is 6.