# 1 The OPeNDAP Server

See the OPeNDAP Server installation guide for most of this information.

There are two separate pieces to the task of installing an OPeNDAP data server: installing and configuring the server itself, and telling the universe of possible users about it.\footnote{The second step is, of

course, optional.} Only the first will be considered in this chapter. OPeNDAP provides avenues for doing the second, including a Catalog Service indexing OPeNDAP datasets, and cooperation with the Global Change Master Directory, but these are still under construction.

An OPeNDAP server is nothing more than a World Wide Web server (httpd) equipped with Common Gateway Interface (CGI) programs that enable it to respond to requests for data from OPeNDAP client programs. Web servers and CGI programs are standard parts of the Web, and the details of their operation and installation are beyond the scope of this guide. For further information about these, consult one of the many World Wide Web references now available. For the purposes of understanding the OPeNDAP architecture, a user need only understand the following:

• A Web server is a process that runs on a computer (the host machine) connected to the Internet. When it receives a URL from some Web client, such as a user somewhere operating Netscape or Mosaic, it packages and returns the data specified by the URL to that client. The data can be text, as in a web page, but it may also be images, sounds, a program to be executed on the client machine, or some other data.
• A properly specified URL can cause a Web server to invoke a CGI program on its host machine, accepting the input that would have gone to the httpd, and returning the output of that program to the client who sent the URL in the first place. The CGI is executed on the server. The OPeNDAP server relies on this facility.

## 1.1 Server Architecture

A request for data made to the client OPeNDAP library will result in three different requests for data to an OPeNDAP server. The user simply enters a single URL, as described in ( opd-client,url). The core OPeNDAP software then modifies the URL into three slightly different forms, and makes three requests for data to the server. The first request is for the "shape" of the data, and consists of the dataset descriptor structure, described on data,dds. The second request is for the attributes of the data types described in the DDS. This structure is described on data,das. The last request is actually for the data.

The response to the DDS and DAS request URLs is text formatted using the grammars in \tableref{data,tab,DAS} and \tableref{data,tab,DDS}. This text can then be parsed by the caller to determine the structure of the dataset, types and sizes of each of its components and their attributes. Depending on the data access API used to access the data, these structures may be derived either from information contained in the dataset or from ancillary information supplied by the dataset maintainers in separate text files, or both. The data in these structures (which can be thought of as data about the real data) may be cached by the client system.

The OPeNDAP DAP is a stateless protocol. The protocol \new{entry points} may be thought of as the different messages to which an OPeNDAP server will respond. (A message is just a URL specifying a request.) Each of the protocol entry points does a single isolated job and they can be issued in any order. Of course, it may not make sense to the user to ask for the data before asking for the data description structure, but that is not the server's problem. This separability allows the user to cache data locally if need be, so that future accesses to the same dataset can skip the retrieval of these structures.

To understand the operation of the OPeNDAP server, it is useful to follow the actions taken to reply to a data request. The diagram in File:Opd-server,fig,server-design lays out the relationship between the various entities. Consider an OPeNDAP URL such as the following:

http://dods.gso.uri.edu/cgi-bin/nph-nc/data/fnoc43.nc


When this URL is submitted to an OPeNDAP client, it will contact the Web server (httpd) running on the platform, dods.gso.uri.edu. When the connection has been established, the client will forward to the server the remaining parts of the URL: /cgi-bin/nph-nc/data/fnoc43.nc. As the server parses this string, it will notice that cgi-bin corresponds to the name of the directory where it keeps its CGI programs. (The actual directory name is specific to the particular web server used, and the details of its installation. Typically, the web server documnetation might call it the ScriptAlias directory, and it might refer to something like /usr/local/etc/httpd/cgi-bin.) It looks in that directory to see whether there exists a CGI program called nph-nc, which is the name of the netCDF OPeNDAP server packaged with OPeNDAP. Finally, the server executes that program, specifying the rest of the URL (data/fnoc43.nc in this case) for an argument. The standard output of the CGI program is redirected to the output of the httpd, so the client will receive the program output as the reply to its request.

\figureplace{The Architecture of an OPeNDAP Data Server.}{htbp} {opd-server,fig,server-design}{arch.ps}{arch.gif}{}

For APIs that are designed to read and write files, such as netCDF, the CGI program will be executed with the working directory specified by the httpd configuration. On the dods.gso.uri.edu server, for example, all CGI programs are executed native to the directory /usr/local/spool/http. The last section of the URL, then, specifies the file fnoc43.nc in the directory:

/usr/local/spool/http/data.


Several existing data APIs, such as JGOFS, are not designed with file access as their fundamental paradigm. The JGOFS system, for example, uses an arrangement of "dictionaries" that define the location and method of access for specified data "objects." A URL addressing a JGOFS object may appear to represent a file, like the netCDF URL above.

http://dods.gso.uri.edu/cgi-bin/nph-jg/station43


However, the identifier (station43) after the CGI program name (nph-jg) represents, not a file, but an entry in the JGOFS data dictionary. The entry will, in turn, identify a file or a database index entry (possibly on yet another system) and a method to access the data indicated. (The httpd server must be a valid JGOFS user to have access to the dictionary.)

Note that the name and location of the cgi-bin directory, as well as the name and location of the working directory used by the CGI programs, are local configuration details of the particular web server in use. The location of the JGOFS data dictionary is a configuration issue of the JGOFS installation. That is to say these details will probably be different on different machines.

### 1.1.1 Service Programs

At this point, the request for data, encoded in a URL, has caused the httpd server to execute the CGI program that represents the OPeNDAP server. The OPeNDAP server, in turn, executes one of several different service programs, and returns the result of that execution to the client. Though there may be others available on a given machine, five of the services constitute the core functionality of the OPeNDAP server:

• Data Attribute
• Data Description
• Data
• ASCII Data
• Information

\note{There are other important OPeNDAP services. For a description of

all the OPeNDAP services, see ( opd-client,services).}

The OPeNDAP server is structured as a dispatch function, invoking ancillary helper programs to provide its services. Installing an OPeNDAP server involves making sure that each of the required helper programs is available to the server software. Here is a table of the helper programs required for each of the OPeNDAP services for the netCDF server. For another OPeNDAP server, the names of some of the helper programs would have a different root (e.g. ff_ for the FreeForm server, jg_ for JGOFS, etc.).

\begin{table}[htbp] \caption{OPeNDAP Services, with their suffixes and helper programs\@.}

\begin{center} \begin{tabular}{|p{0.75in}|p{0.75in}|p{2in}|} \hline \tblhd{Service} & \tblhd{Suffix} & \tblhd{Helper Program}

\hline \hline


Data Attribute & .das & nc_das

\hline


Data Descriptor & .dds & nc_dds

\hline


OPeNDAP Data & .dods & nc_dods

\hline


ASCII Data & .asc or .ascii & asciival

\hline


Information & .info & usage, see ( sec,document-data) for configuration information.

\hline


\ifh & .html & None

\hline


Version & .ver & None

\hline


Help & Anything else & None

\hline


\end{tabular} \end{center} \end{table}

The service programs are started by the CGI depending on the extension given with the URL. If the URL ends with .das' then the DAS service program is started. Similarly, the extension .dds' will cause the DDS service to run and so on. The CGI program (the "dispatch" script), which serves to dispatch the request to one of the three service programs, can be very simple. In the servers distributed with OPeNDAP, the CGI is simply a shell script that takes its own name and catenates the enclosed URL suffix. The services, being more complex programs, will generally be written in C or \Cpp .

On the client side, the user may never see the .das,' .dds,' or .dds' URL extensions. Nor will the user necessarily be aware that each URL given to the OPeNDAP client produces three different requests for information. These manipulations happen within the client library, and the user need never be aware of them. \tbd{(Refer to

substitution takes place)}

There may be more than five service programs for a given server implementation.\footnote{A couple of services, such as the version and

help services, are built into the server software, and need no

configuration.} A server may provide other "services," such as the catalog service, or a service specific to a particular data implementation. The three data services, however, constitute the minimum configuration for a functional server. All three services are involved in data requests, as the client program will use the output from the _dds and _dds services to allocate memory and define parameters for the output of the _dods service, which is the actual data requested. The remaining two services, the ASCII and information services, are primarily intended for interactive use, as they make dataset and service information directly available to a browser client, such as Netscape.

## 1.2 Installing an OPeNDAP Server

Most of the task of installing an OPeNDAP server consists of getting the required Web server installed and running. The intricacies of this task, and the variety of available Web servers make this task beyond the scope of this guide. Proceed with the following steps only after the Web server itself is operational.

Installing the OPeNDAP CGI programs and the data to be served is a

relatively simple operation. After


installing the OPeNDAP source tree and building the software, (See \appref{install}), the user need only copy the CGI program from the etc directory in the OPeNDAP source tree ($(DODS_ROOT)/etc) to one of the directories where the Web server expects to find its CGI programs. The exact name of this directory is an implementation detail of the Web server itself. The service programs used by the CGI are generally kept in the same directory as the CGI itself, although this can be changed by modifying the OPeNDAP CGI dispatch script. \note{The server programs come with release notes and installation notes, in files README and INSTALL, among others. These will be found in the distribution directories for the particular server. For example, the documentation for the JGOFS server will be found in$DODS_ROOT/src/http/jg-dods. See The OPeNDAP Programmer's Guide for

After installing the CGI program and the services, the data to be provided must be put in some location where it may be served to clients. Again, the location of the data depends on the configuration of the Web server and the API used by the CGI services. Most often, data that is served by a Web server is kept in the htdocs directory, the exact pathname of which is specified in the httpd.configuration file. A server may also be enabled to search a user's home directory tree or may follow links from the htdocs directory (if the server is enabled to follow symbolic links). There may be yet other options provided by the specific server used in a particular installation, so there is really no way to avoid consulting the configuration instructions of the Web server.

As noted, the location of the data depends not only on the configuration of the Web server, but also on the API used to access the data requested. For example, the netCDF server simply stores data in a path relative to the working directory of the CGI program, htdocs, while the JGOFS server uses its data dictionary to specify the location of its data. Refer to the specific installation notes for each API for more information about the location of the data.

The issues of server configuration depend to a large extent on the particular server in question. The OPeNDAP server for JGOFS data is configured differently than the OPeNDAP server for netCDF data. Each server comes with its own installation and configuration instructions. These can be found in a file called INSTALL in the distribution directory for the server. The server distribution directories are in $DODS_ROOT/src. Here is a checklist of items that need to be attended in order to install any OPeNDAP server: \tbd{Is this list complete?} • Is the httpd server configured to execute CGI programs? • Are the main CGI and subsidiary CGI programs installed in the server's CGI directory? For the netCDF API, these will be called nph-nc, and nc_das, nc_dds, and so on. The server CGI's for other API's will have comparable names. • Is the gzip program installed in the PATH of the httpd server? This is used to compress data messages returned to the client. ### 1.2.2 Constructing the URL After a dataset has been installed, and the server programs installed, you need to know what its address is. ( opd-client,url) contains an explanation of the various parts of the OPeNDAP URL, including a diagram in File:Opd-client,fig,url-parts. Refer to this section, with a copy of the Web server configuration data readily available. Using the configuration data, you should be able to determine the appropriate URL for the data you are serving. Remember that the web server will have its own definition of the root directory for data, and another definition for CGI programs, depending on the configuration. ### 1.2.3 Documenting Your Data OPeNDAP contains provisions for supplying documentation to users about a server, and also about the data that server provides. When a server receives an information request (through the info service that invokes the usage program), it returns to the client an HTML document created from the DAS and DDS of the referenced data. It may also return information about the server, and more detail about the dataset. If you would like to provide more information about a dataset than is contained in the DAS and DDS, simply create an HTML document (without the <html> and <body> tags, which are supplied by the info service), and store it in the same directory as the dataset, with a name corresponding to the dataset filename. For example, the datasets fnoc1.nc, fnoc2.nc, and fnoc3.nc might be documented with a file called fnoc.html. You may prefer to override this method of creating documentation and simply provide a single, complete HTML document that contains general information for the server or for a group of datasets. For example, to force the info server to return a particular HTML document for all its datasets, you would create a complete HTML document and give it the name \var{dataset}.ovr, where \var{dataset} is the dataset name. More information about providing user information, including sample HTML files, and a complete description of the search procedure for finding the dataset documentation, is to be found in The OPeNDAP Programmer's Guide . ### 1.2.4 Testing the Installation It is possible to test the OPeNDAP server to see whether an installation has been properly done. The easiest way to test the installation is with a simple Web client like Netscape or Mosaic. (A simple Web client called geturl is provided in the OPeNDAP core software which can retrieve text from Web servers. Look for it in the$(DODS_ROOT)/etc directory.)

The simplest test is simply to ask for the version of the server, or the help message. The OPeNDAP server uses helper programs to return the DAS, DDS, and data. If you want to test the server itself, and not the configuration of the helper programs, the version, help, or info services will suffice. Issuing a URL with .ver on the end will return the version information for this server, appending .info will return the info message, and issuing a URL with a nonsense suffix or .help will return a help message:

> geturl http://dods.gso.uri.edu/cgi-bin/nph-nc/data/test.nc.ver
> geturl http://dods.gso.uri.edu/cgi-bin/nph-nc/data/test.nc.info
> geturl http://dods.gso.uri.edu/cgi-bin/nph-nc/data/test.nc.help


To return the data attribute structure of a dataset, use a URL such as the following:\footnote{The geturl program knows about the OPeNDAP

protocols, so you can also omit the .das suffix, and use the

-a option to the geturl command. This tells

geturl to append .das for you.}

> geturl http://dods.gso.uri.edu/cgi-bin/nph-nc/data/test.nc.das
`

Refer to ( data,das) for a description of a data attribute structure. You can compare the description against what is returned by the above URL to test the operation of the OPeNDAP server.

You can use your web client to test the OPeNDAP server by using it to submit URLs that address specific services of the client. See ( opd-client,services) for information about how to request individual services. If any of the services fail, you can check the list of helper programs in ( opd-server,service) to find out which is missing. From the web browser, you can access all the OPeNDAP services, except the (binary) data service. However, if all the others work, you can be relatively assured that one will, too.

Using the .html suffix produces the \ifh, providing a forms-based interface with which a user can query the dataset using a simple web browser. There's more about the \ifh in ( opd-client).

## 1.3 Displaying Information to the OPeNDAP User

OPeNDAP contains a system that allows an OPeNDAP server a degree of control over the user's graphic user interface (GUI). This system runs the system progress indicator, that displays to the user the status of a pending data request. However, a server may also use the GUI interface to display messages to the user, such as error messages, and even to query the user for information.

### 1.3.1 GUI Architecture

Since OPeNDAP is built inside a data access API, and since the application program that has become the OPeNDAP client was presumably not built with network I/O in mind, an OPeNDAP client will typically not do any processing at all while it awaits a return message from a data request. Any communication that must happen between the OPeNDAP software and the user must occur without the involvement of the application program that has invoked the OPeNDAP software. To avoid this limitation, OPeNDAP starts up a \new{GUI manager} sub-process. This sub-process can receive data from the OPeNDAP core software, and can operate the user's graphical user interface. \indc{Tcl!interpreter

subprocess}

The operation of the GUI manager is illustrated in File:Opd-server,fig,gui. As seen in the figure, the client application can usually control the user's screen, but during a data request, this communication is suspended. Until the request returns control to the client application, messages returned from the OPeNDAP server can be displayed to the user by passing them to the GUI manager sub-process, who can display them in a window to the user.

\figureplace{The Architecture of an OPeNDAP Client GUI.}{htbp} {opd-server,fig,gui}{wish.ps}{wish.gif}{}

The GUI manager in \OPDversion uses a Tcl/Tk interpreter (the wish program is the default) to interpret messages from the server. These messages usually contain Tcl programs to display information to the user. However, the wish interpreter can also be sent programs to query the user for more information, or draw little rabbits on the screen or any other graphic function the server needs to have displayed to the user. See Tcl and the Tk Toolkit~\citel{osterhout:tcl} for more information about Tcl.

By default, the GUI manager initializes by running the Tcl programs in the files dods_gui.tcl, error.tcl and progress.tcl. (These are stored in \$DODS_ROOT/etc.) Server commands to the GUI manager can use the functions defined in these files. Note also that the user may be using a "safe" Tcl interpreter, with a restricted subset of the usual array of Tcl commands available to it. The user can control these features of the operation of the GUI by changing several environment variables. These are described in ( opd-client,environment).

A server will use the features of the GUI manager to display error messages to the user. A server may also use the GUI to query a user to correct whatever condition caused the error. For example, if a user has misspelled some part of a constraint expression in a URL submitted to a server, the server can send the constraint expression back to the user in an edit window, with instructions to fix it. The user can edit the expression, and send it back, allowing the server to proceed without submitting a new request. Consult the client and server toolkit manual for more information about the \class{Error} object on this subject.

## 1.4 Building OPeNDAP Data Servers

Though servers are included in the OPeNDAP core software, some users may wish to write their own OPeNDAP data servers. The architecture of the httpd server and the OPeNDAP core software make this a relatively simple task.

A user may wish to write his or her own OPeNDAP server for any or all of the following reasons:

• The data to be served may be stored in a format not compatible

with one of the existing OPeNDAP servers.

• The data may be arranged in a fashion that allows a user to

optimize the access of those data by rewriting the service programs.

• The user may wish to provide ancillary data to OPeNDAP clients not

anticipated by the writers of the servers available.

The design of the OPeNDAP library make the task a relatively simple one for a programmer already familiar with the data access API to be used. Also, though the servers provided with the OPeNDAP core software are written in C++, they may be written in any language from which the OPeNDAP libraries may be called.

Once it is invoked, a CGI program scoops up whatever input is going to the standard input stream of the Web server (httpd) that invoked it. Further, the standard output of the CGI is piped directly to the WWW library, which sends it directly back to the requesting client. This means that the CGI program itself need only read its input from standard input and write its output to standard output.

Most of the task of writing a server, then, consists of reading the data with the data access API and loading it into the OPeNDAP classes. Method functions defined for each class make it simple to output the data so that it may be sent back to the requesting client.

Refer to The OPeNDAP Programmer's Guide for specific information about the classes and the facilities of the OPeNDAP core software, and instructions about how to write a new server.