# Second try: Writing a Client in C++ Using lidap

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# 1 Preface

This tutorial describes the steps required to enable your client application to interact with the OPeNDAP Data Access Protocol by using the Java or C++ classes provided in the OPeNDAP class libraries. It also describes the trade offs between using these toolkits and a client-library interface such as netCDF.

The C++ and Java toolkis are class libraries which provide for direct interaction with a remote OPeNDAP server. You'll need to write some code.

If your client application currently uses one of the netCDF, GDAL or OGR APIs, then you only need to relink your application with the OPeNDAP-enabled version of the API library, allowing you to skip this tutorial entirely.

# 2 Writing your own OPeNDAP client

## 2.1 Choose a language

The OPeNDAP project provides both \xlink{C++}{\OPDapiUrl} and \xlink{Java}{\OPDjavaUrl} implementations of the DAP. Each library includes classes that implement the various objects which comprise the DAP software for building clients. Each also includes some extra software which simplifies building clients by managing virtual connections, handling data caching, et cetera. To choose one of the toolkits, several factors should be weighed. With which of the two programming languages are you most comfortable? What type of computer will the client run on? For client development, both Java and C++ are supported on win32 and Unix architectures. Java is more likely to be supported on other architectures, such as Mac.

The DAP library is middle-ware. You can use it to build a completely new client or to add network data access to an existing program (making it a client). If you're interested in writing a client from scratch, simply choose the toolkit/language you feel most comfortable. If you're going to take an existing program and transform it into a client there are several additional factors beyond programming language you should consider.

If the program you want to DAP-enable can read netCDF files, by far the easiest way to achieve your goal is to use our DAP-enable netCDF \emph{client library} (CL). This piece of software works like the standard netCDF CL but has been modified to recognize DAP URLs when they are presented in place of local file names. The OPeNDAP netCDF CL has exactly the same functional interface as the standard netCDF library available from Unidata. That makes it a very powerful tool because it is possible to tap into a large number of existing programs and build OPeNDAP clients. Ferret, GRrADS and IDV are complex programs which have been OPeNDAP-enabled using the netCDF CL.

Using the netCDF CL is not without its caveats. First netCDF does not do a good job of representing the entire OPeNDAP data model (That's not a dig at netCDF, it's a reflection of different design goals for two pieces of software). It's very hard to access point data using the netCDF CL, although we're working on this problem. Second, the C++ DAP library is used to build the C version of the netCDF CL\footnote{Unidata bundles OPeNDAP access with their standard release of the Java version of netCDF.} which means that the application programs must be linked use a C++ compiler. Finally, it can be tricky to build a shared object (aka DLL) using the C++ DAP library.\footnote{As the C++ ABI becomes more widely supported, this situation should change.} If you're going to do that, please contact us through user support or the technical discussion list.

However, while the previous points are true, the principle distinction between using the netCDF CL and one of the DAP class libraries is that with the netcDF CL you often do not have to write any new software at all! If you choose to use one of the DAP libraries, you're going to have to write some code.

If you plan to OPeNDAP-enable an existing application using the Java toolkit, the application typically must provide a Java Virtual Machine (VM). You may be able to side-step this if you feel you can rely on the host OS to provide a JVM and/or your target program already has a JVM embedded in it. Still you must be sure there is a way to communicate data values between the DAP library and the application.

To use the C++ toolkit you should insure that your client application can be built with, or link with libraries constructed using C++ compilers.\footnote{As of winter 2004 we're using gcc 2.95.x, 3.2, 3.3 and MS Visual C++.} Check the current list of supported architectures on the web-site, or contact the DODS technical support (\OPDsupport), or write to the \OPDtechList\ mailing list for information and/or help.

This tutorial will focus on using the C++ toolkit. In Section~2 the main programmatic differences between the two class libraries is listed. Both toolkits are essentially the same, with only minor differences between them.

## 2.2 Client Architecture

In essence, an OPeNDAP-enabled client uses overloaded URLs to form the requests to a remote data server. Through the URL, the client connects to the remote server and issues one of several requests. In response to each request, the server will return a well-defined response that the client can use to intern the structure and content of the remote data into local data structures, as well as retrieve any attributes associated with the remote data.

The C++ and Java toolkits share the same characteristics, though the names of the objects and their methods may be slightly different. If you understand how the clients are built, it will be easy to see how your own client application can be OPeNDAP-enabled with minimal effort. The \OPDapi\ provides a complete description of the C++ Toolkit and the \OPDjavaUrl\ provides a complete description of the Java toolkit.

# 3 The DAP Architecture

The DAP can be thought of as a layered protocol composed of MIME, HTTP, basic objects, and complex, presentation-style, responses.

## 3.1 The DAP uses HTTP which in turn uses MIME

Clients use HTTP when they make requests of DAP servers. HTTP is a fairly straightforward protocol (\xlink{for general information on HTTP see http://www.w3.org/Protocols/}{http://www.w3.org/Protocols/}, \xlink{and for the HTTP/1.1 specification, see http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616.html}{http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616.html}). It uses pseudo-MIME documents to encapsulate both the request sent from client to server and the response sent back. This is important for the DAP because the DAP uses headers in both the \xlink{ request}{http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/packages/dods/design/dap-rfc-html/dap_16.html} and \xlink{ response}{http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/packages/dods/design/dap-rfc-html/dap_22.html} documents to transfer information. However, for a programmer who intends to write a DAP server, exactly what gets written into those headers and how it gets written is not important. Both the C++ and Java class libraries will handle these tasks for you (look at the \xlink{DODSFilter class}{http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/packages/dods/api/pref/html/DODSFilter.html} to see how). It's important to know about, however, because if you decide not to use the libraries, or the parts that automate generating the correct MIME documents, then your server will have to generate the correct headers itself.

## 3.2 The DAP defines three objects

To transfer information from servers to clients, the DAP uses three objects. Whenever a client asks a server for information, it does so by requesting one of these three objects (note: this is not strictly true, but the whole truth will be told in just a bit. For now, assume it's true). These are the Dataset Descriptor Structure (DDS), Dataset Attribute Structure (DAS), and Data object (DataDDS). These are described in considerable detail in other documentation. The Programmer's Guide contains a description of the \xlink{DDS and DAS objects (see http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/packages/dods/api/pguide-html/)}{http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/packages/dods/api/pguide-html/pguide_6.html}. These objects contain the name and types of the variables in a dataset, along with any attributes (name-value pairs) bound to the variables. The DataDDS contains data values. We have implemented the SDKs so that the DataDDS is a subclass of the DDS object that adds the capacity to store values with each variable.

\begin{tabular}[c]{lll} \\ \xlink{COADS Climatology}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/nc/coads_climatology.nc.html} & \xlink{DAS}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/nc/coads_climatology.nc.das} & \xlink{DDS}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/nc/coads_climatology.nc.dds} \\ \xlink{NASA Scatterometer Data}{href="http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/hdf/S2000415.HDF.ascii?Wind_Speed\ \xlink{DAS}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/hdf/S2000415.HDF.das} & \xlink{DDS}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/hdf/S2000415.HDF.dds} \\ Catalog of AVHRR Files & \xlink{DAS}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/ff/1998-6-avhrr.dat.das} & \xlink{DDS}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/ff/1998-6-avhrr.dat.dds} \\ \xlink{AHVRR Image}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/dsp/east.coast.pvu.ascii?dsp_band_1\ \xlink{DAS}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/dsp/east.coast.pvu.das} & \xlink{DDS}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/dsp/east.coast.pvu.dds} \\ \end{tabular}

The DAP models all datasets as collections of \xlink{variables}{http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/packages/dods/api/pguide-html/pguide_9.html}. The \xlink{DDS and DataDDS}{http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/packages/dods/api/pref/html/DDS.html} objects are containers for those variables. How you represent your dataset using the three objects and the DAP's data type hierarchy is covered in \begin{iftex} "Implementing the DDS object" in Writing an OPeNDAP Server . \end{iftex} \begin{ifhtml} \xlink{Implementing the DDS object}{../ws-html/server-implementing-dds.html} in Writing an OPeNDAP Server . \end{ifhtml}

## 3.3 The DAP also defines services

\note{Information of the DAP services is presented here for completeness and

 because using these can help speed and simplify development of you client.
For example, you can use the HTML and ASCII services to look at a data
source using only a web browser. Similarly, the INFO response can be used
to look at the attributes and variables in a given data source.}


In the previous section we said that the DAP defined three objects and all interaction with the server involved those three objects. In fact, the DAP also defines other responses. They are:

\begin{description} \item[ASCII] Data can be requested in CSV form. \item[HTML] Each server can return an HTML form that facilitates building

URLs.


\item[INFO] Each server can combine the DDS and DAS and present that as HTML. \item[VERSION] Each server must be able to respond to a request for it's

 version and the version of the DAP it implements.


\item[HELP] Each server must be able to provide a rudimentary help response. \end{description}

In each case the server's response to these requests is built using one or more of the basic three objects. Here are some links to various datasets' ASCII, HTML and INFO responses:

\begin{tabular}[c]{llll} \\ \xlink{COADS Climatology}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/nc/coads_climatology.nc.html} & \xlink{ASCII for the SST variable}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/nc/coads_climatology.nc.asc?SST} & \xlink{HTML}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/nc/coads_climatology.nc.html} & \xlink{INFO}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/nc/coads_climatology.nc.info} \\ \xlink{NASA Scatterometer Data}{ref="http://localhost/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/hdf/S2000415.HDF.ascii?Wind_Speed\ \xlink{ASCII for wind speed and direction}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/hdf/S2000415.HDF.ascii?Wind_Speed\ \xlink{HTML}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/hdf/S2000415.HDF.html} & \xlink{INFO}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/hdf/S2000415.HDF.info} \\ Catalog of AVHRR Files & \xlink{ASCII for values within a date range}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/ff/1998-6-avhrr.dat.ascii?year,day_num,DODS_URL&day_num\ \xlink{HTML}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/ff/1998-6-avhrr.dat.html} & \xlink{INFO}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/ff/1998-6-avhrr.dat.info} \\ \xlink{AHVRR Image}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/dsp/east.coast.pvu.ascii?dsp_band_1\ \xlink{ASCII for the SST}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/dsp/east.coast.pvu.ascii?dsp_band_1\ \xlink{HTML}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/dsp/east.coast.pvu.html} & \xlink{INFO}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/data/dsp/east.coast.pvu.info} \\ \end{tabular}

The VERSION and HELP responses can be see by appending \lit{help} or \lit{version} to the end of the server's base URL. For example:

\begin{tabular}[c]{l} \\ \xlink{HELP: http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/help}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/help}\\ \xlink{VERSION: http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/version}{http://dodsdev.gso.uri.edu/dods-3.4/nph-dods/version}\\ \end{tabular}

## 3.4 Connecting to the server

To manage the connection between the client application and the remote server, the DAP uses two objects. The \class{Connect} class manages one connection to either a remote data server, or a local access. The \class{Connections} class is used to manage a set of instances to the class \class{Connect}. For each data source that the client opens, there must be exactly one instance of the \class{Connect} class. The \OPDapi\ provides a description for the C++ toolkit's usage.

# 4 Getting ready to write your client

An OPeNDAP-enabled client application creates a connection to the remote server using the \class{Connect} class, and then issues requests to the remote server through the \class{Connect} class methods. Please refer to the \xlink{\lit{Geturl.java}}{Geturl.java.html} and \xlink{\lit{geturl.cc}}{geturl.cc.html} sources as examples of command-line based DAP client applications written in Java and C++, respectively.

Most of the software is boilerplate. Following are sections of the Geturl.java client application, later a description of the same example in C++ will be provided. Again, please refer to the complete source listings referenced above.

 

DConnect url = null; try { url = new DConnect(nextURL, accept_deflate); } 

This code snippet instantiates a new instance of the \class{DConnect} class, passing the URL referencing the remote data server, and a boolean flag indicating that the client can accept responses from the server which are compressed.

 

if (get_data) { if ((cexpr==false) && (nextURL.indexOf('?') == -1)) { System.err.println("Must supply a constraint expression with -D."); continue; } for (int j=0; j<times; j++) { try { StatusUI ui = null; if (gui) ui = new StatusWindow(nextURL); DataDDS dds = url.getData(expr, ui); processData(url, dds, verbose, dump_data, accept_deflate); } catch (DODSException e) { System.err.println(e); System.exit(1); } catch (java.io.FileNotFoundException e) { System.err.println(e) System.exit(1); } catch (Exception e) { System.err.println(e); e.printStackTrace(); System.exit(1); } } } 

This compound statement block initiaties a data request to the remote server. The \class{DConnect} method \lit{getData} forms the data request to the remote server by appending the string, \var{expr}, containing the constraint-expression, onto the URL used in creating the initial \class{DConnect} to the remote site. The parameter, \var{ui}, provides an optional \lit{StatusWindow} object to provide the status of the current request to the client.

 

catch (DODSException e) { System.err.println(e); System.exit(1); } catch (java.io.FileNotFoundException e) { System.err.println(e); System.exit(1); } catch (Exception e) { System.err.println(e); e.printStackTrace(); System.exit(1); } 

Completing the try block is a series of catch blocks that catch exceptions thrown by the DAP library code, and Java input/output and general exceptions.

The C++ toolkit provides similar functionality as the Java toolkit though the parameters to the individual \class{Connect} methods may vary. The C++ client application \xlink{geturl.cc}{geturl.cc.html} uses the similar C++ toolkit classes as the Java toolkit to implement the Geturl client application:

 

 string name = argv[i]; Connect url(name, trace, accept_deflate); 

This code fragment declares an instance of the \class{Connect} class, passing the URL referencing the remote data server, and a boolean flag indicating that the client can accept responses from the server that are compressed.

 else if (get_data) { 

 if (expr.empty() && name.find('?') == string::npos)  expr = "";  for (int j = 0; j < times; ++j) {  DataDDS dds; try { DBG(cerr << "URL: " << url->URL(false) << endl); DBG(cerr << "CE: " << expr << endl); url->request_data(dds, expr); if (verbose) fprintf( stderr, "Server version: url->get_version().c_str() ) ; print_data(dds, print_rows); } catch (Error &e) { e.display_message(); continue; }  } 

} 

This compound statement block initiaties a data request from the remote server. The \class{Connect} method \lit{request_data} forms the data request to the remote server by appending the string, \var{expr}, containing the constraint-expression, onto the URL used in creating the initial \class{Connect} to the remote site.

 catch (Error &e) { 

 e.display_message(); continue 

} 

Completing the try block is a catch block that picks up exceptions thrown by the DAP library code. The DAP C++ library throws several types of exceptions, the most common of which are \class{Error} and \class{InternalErr}. All of the exceptions are either instances of \class{Error} or are specializations of it, so catching just \class{Error} will get everything.

# 5 Subclassing the data types

The DAP defines a data type hierarchy as the core of its data model. This collection of data types includes scalar, vector and constructor types. Most of the types are available in all modern programming languages with the exceptions being \lit{Url}, \lit{Sequence} and \lit{Grid}. In the DAP library, the class \lit{BaseType} is the root of the data type tree.

## 5.1 A quick review of the data types supported by the DAP

The DAP supports the common scalar data types such as Byte, 16- and 32-bit signed and unsigned integers, and 32- and 64-bit floating point numbers. The DAP also supports Strings and Urls as basic scalar types. The DAP includes Arrays of unlimited size and dimensionality. The DAP also supports three type-constructors: \lit{Structure}, \lit{Sequence} and \lit{Grid}. A \lit{Structure} on the DAP mimics a struct in \lit{C}. A \lit{Sequence} is a table-like data structure inherited from the JGOFS data system. It can be used to hold information that might be stored in relational databases or tables, either flat or hierarchical. The JGOFS, FreeForm and HDF servers all use the \lit{Sequence} data type. Lastly, the \lit{Grid} data type is used to bind an array to a group of map vectors , single dimension arrays that provide non-integral values for the indexes of the array. The most typical use of a Grid is to provide latitude and longitude registration for some georeferenced array data (e.g., a projected satellite image). The DAP does not have a pointer data type, but in some cases the \lit{Url} data type can be used as a pointer to variables between files. More information about the \xlink{DAP's data type hierarchy}{http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/packages/dods/api/pguide-html/pguide_9.html} is given in the Programmer's Guide.

## 5.2 Creating the subclasses

When you build a DAP client, you must create a collection of data type subclasses. That is each of the leaf classes in the preceding class diagram must be subclassed by your client. This is pretty easy since a good bit of the work is rote.

First we'll illustrate the parts that are mechanical. Here's an example from the C++ Matlab client. The class is the Byte class. In the case of the matlab client, this class doesn't do anything beyond the bare minimum, so it's a good starting point:

 Byte * NewByte(const string &n) { 

 return new ClientByte(n); } BaseType * ClientByte::ptr_duplicate() {  return new ClientByte(*this); } bool ClientByte::read(const string &) {  throw InternalErr(__FILE__, __LINE__, "Called unimplemented read method"); 

} 

To create a child of any of the data type leaf classes, you must define three methods and one function. Let's talk about the function first. The function \lit{NewByte} is what Meyersmeyers:ecpp calls a \emph{virtual constructor}. It's similar to a low-budget factory class ("low-budget" because it's not a class). This function is used at various places in the DAP library when it need to create instances of \lit{Byte} without knowing in advance the dynamic type of the object that actually will be created. If all this sounds a little weird, just remember that your \lit{Byte}, \lit{Int16}, ..., \lit{Grid} classes --- whatever they may be called --- must all contain an implementation of this function and each should all return a pointer to an instance of the appropriate child class. These functions will be used by the library to create instance of the classes you have defined when writing your server. In this case of the example Matlab server, it's an instance of the \lit{MATByte} class. If you look in the files for the Matlab server, you'll see that the function \lit{NewGrid} returns a pointer to a new \lit{MATGrid}, and so on.

Second, a constructor must be implemented and should take the name of the variable as its sole argument.

Third, your child classes should also define the \lit{ptr_duplicate()} method. This method returns a pointer to a new instance of an object in the same class. Occasionally, in the DAP library, objects are declared with pointers specified as \lit{BaseType *}. If the \lit{new} operator was used to copy such an object, the copied object would be an instance of BaseType (the static type of the object) not the type of the thing referenced (the dynamic type)\footnote{This is the oft discussed phenomenon of slicing,' see Meyersmeyers:ecpp, Stroustrupstroustrup:cpp, et c., for a complete explanation.}. By using the \lit{ptr_duplicate()} method the DAP library is sure that when it copies an object, it's getting an instance of the subclass defined by your server.

Unlike the case where you are subclassing the DAP variable classes to build a server, there's no need to implement \lit{read()} when building a client. The classes contain a default implementation od \lit{read()} that throws InternalErr if it is ever called (which no simple client should ever do.\footnote{If you're building a gateway, something that is both a client

 and a server, you'll need to implement \lit{read()}.}


# 6 Accessing the DDS object

(1)

The Data Descriptor Structure (DDS) is a data structure used by the DODS software to describe datasets and subsets of those datasets. The DDS may be thought of as the declarations for the data structures that will hold data requested by some DODS client. Part of the job of a DODS server is to build a suitable DDS for a specific dataset and to send it to the client. Depending on the data access API in use, this may involve reading part of the dataset and inferring the DDS. Other APIs may require the server simply to read some ancillary data file with the DDS in it.

For the client, the DDS object includes methods for reading the persistent form of the object sent from a server. This includes parsing the ASCII representation of the object and, possibly, reading data received from a server into a data object.

Note that the class DDS is used to instantiate both DDS and DataDDS objects. A DDS that is empty (contains no actual data) is used by servers to send structural information to the client. The same DDS can be treated as a DataDDS when data values are bound to the variables it defines.

For a complete description of the DDS layout and protocol, please refer to \OPDuser\ and \OPDapi .

The DDS has an ASCII representation, which is what is transmitted from a DODS server to a client. Here is the DDS representation of an entire dataset containing a time series of worldwide grids of sea surface temperatures:

 Dataset { 

 Grid { ARRAY:  Int32 sst[time = 404][lat = 180][lon = 360];  MAPS:  Float64 time[time = 404]; Float64 lat[lat = 180]; Float64 lon[lon = 360];  } sst; 

} weekly; 

If the data request to this dataset includes a constraint expression, the corresponding DDS might be different. For example, if the request was only for northern hemisphere data at a specific time, the above DDS might be modified to appear like this:

 Dataset { 

 Grid { ARRAY:  Int32 sst[time = 1][lat = 90][lon = 360];  MAPS:  Float64 time[time = 1]; Float64 lat[lat = 90]; Float64 lon[lon = 360];  } sst; 

} weekly; 

The constraint has narrowed the area of interest; the range of latitude values has been halved and there is only one time value in the returned array.

See \OPDuser\ , \OPDapiref\ for descriptions of the DODS data types.

Reading data from a DDS object is the heart of writing your own OPeNDAP client. To integrate the information contained in the DDS, you must do two things. First you must decide how the data type hierarchy that is part of the DAP can be represented in your client application. Some client applications cannot represent all possible DAP data types directly. Where possible the client developer should strive to support as many data types as possible to facilitate access to the wide variety of data accessible through OPeNDAP servers. In practice, once you know how to map variables from the DAP into your client application, writing code to build the DDS instance is easy.

 else if (get_dds) { 

 for (int j = 0; j < times; ++j) {  DDS dds; try { url->request_dds(dds); } catch (Error &e) { e.display_message(); delete url; url = 0; continue; // Goto the next URL or exit the loop. } if (verbose) { fprintf( stderr, "Server version: url->get_version().c_str() ) ; fprintf( stderr, "DDS:\n" ) ; } dds.print(stdout);  } 

} 

Above, the \class{Connect} method \lit{request_dds} is called, passing a reference to a DDS object. Following is an example from the C++ Matlab client illustrates a simple traversal of the DDS object returned from the \lit{connect::request_data} method.

 static void process_data(Connect &url, DDS &dds) { 

 if (verbose) cerr << "Server version: " << url.server_version() << endl;  for (DDS::Vars_iter i = dds.var_begin(); i != dds.var_end(); i++) { BaseType *v = *i ; v->print_decl(cout, "", true); smart_newline(cout, v->type()); } 

} 

In the C++ DAP classes STL iterators are used to iterate over the members (i.e., variables) in the DDS object. The iterator \lit{i} references pointers to the top-level \lit{BaseType} objects held by the DDS. See Jouspurtisjosuttis:cpp-stl for information about the Standard Template Library and STL iterators. The \OPDapi\ provides a description for the each of the data types, and the methods available to operate on them.

# 7 Accessing the DAS object

The Data Attribute Structure (DAS) is a set of name-value pairs used to describe the data in a particular dataset.\footnote{Often this is referred to as the data set's meta data or semantic meta data .} The name-value pairs are called the attributes . The values may be of any of the DODS simple data types (\lit{Byte}, \lit{Int16}, \lit{UInt16}, \lit{Int32}, \lit{UInt32}, \lit{Float32}, \lit{Float64}, \lit{String} and \lit{URL}), and may be scalar or vector. (Note that all values are actually stored as string data.)

A value may also consist of a set of other name-value pairs. This makes it possible to nest collections of attributes, giving rise to a hierarchy of attributes. The DAP uses this structure to provide information about variables in a dataset.

In the following example of a DAS, several of the attribute collections have names corresponding to the names of variables in a hypothetical dataset. The attributes in that collection are said to belong to that variable. For example, the \lit{lat} variable has an attribute units of \lit{degrees_north.}

 

Attributes { GLOBAL { String title "Reynolds Optimum Interpolation (OI) SST"; } lat { String units "degrees_north"; String long_name "Latitude"; Float64 actual_range 89.5, -89.5; } lon { String units "degrees_east"; String long_name "Longitude"; Float64 actual_range 0.5, 359.5; } time { String units "days since 1-1-1 00:00:00"; String long_name "Time"; Float64 actual_range 726468., 729289.; String delta_t "0000-00-07 00:00:00"; } sst { String long_name "Weekly Means of Sea Surface Temperature"; Float64 actual_range -1.8, 35.09; String units "degC"; Float64 add_offset 0.; Float64 scale_factor 0.0099999998; Int32 missing_value 32767; } } 

Attributes may have arbitrary names, although in most datasets it is important to choose these names so a reader will know what they describe. In the above example, the GLOBAL attribute provides information about the entire dataset.

Data attribute information is an important part of the the data provided to a DODS client by a server, and the DAS is how this data is packaged for sending (and how it is received).

An example of Attribute handling in a client application is provided in the \lit{www-int} C++ source:

 void LoaddodsProcessing::print_attr_table(AttrTable &at, ostream &os) { 

 for (AttrTable::Attr_iter i = at.attr_begin(); i != at.attr_end(); ++i) { int attr_num = at.get_attr_num(i); switch (at.get_attr_type(i)) { case Attr_container: { AttrTable *cont_atp = at.get_attr_table(i); os << "Structure" << endl << names.lookup(at.get_name(i), translate) << " " << cont_atp->get_size() << endl; print_attr_table(*cont_atp, os); break; }  case Attr_string: case Attr_url: if (attr_num == 1) { os << "String" << endl << names.lookup(at.get_name(i), translate) << endl << at.get_attr(i) << endl; } else { os << "Array" << endl << "String " << names.lookup(at.get_name(i), translate) << " 1" << endl << attr_num << endl; for (int j = 0; j < attr_num; ++j) os << at.get_attr(i, j) << endl;  os << endl; } break;  // The remainder of this method's code has been elided. To see the // complete method, look at the source file // DODS/src/clients/ml-cmdln/LoaddodsProcessing.cc } } 

} 

As with the DDS, the DAS object is a container and STL iterators are used to access its members (the attributes). There are several differences, however, between the two containers. The DDS holds complete objects, each of which is an instance of the class \class{BaseType}. A DAS, however, holds a collection of attributes. Unless the attribute is itself a container for other attribute type-name-value tuples, there is no contained object to access with methods to run. Instead the DAS and AttrTable classes themselves provide methods that are used to access the type, name and value of the attributes. These accessor methods take as their arguments a STL iterator.

For example, in the first case, the method \lit{AttrTable::get_attr_table()} is used to get a pointer to an AttrTable (which is the value' of a container attribute). In the second case the \lit{AttrTable::get_name()} and \lit{AttrTable::get_attr()} methods are used to get the name and value of simple attributes. In each case the \lit{Attr_iter} \lit{i} is passed to the methods.

# 8 Getting Data: Accessing the DataDDS object

Up till now we have talked about access to a data source's meta data. The DDS provides access to the syntactic meta data and the DAS provides semantic meta data. Use the DataDDS to access data values held by the data source.

The \class{DataDDS} class is an extension of class \class{DDS} which contains the binary data values returned by the remote server. It supports the same methods as the class \class{DDS}, but the \lit{BaseType::buf2val()} methods can be used to extract data held in the variable instances of \class{BaseType}. Use the \class{DDS}, \class{BaseType} and their iterators to access the variables.

Use \class{Connect} to ask a remote server for a \class{DataDDS}. The \class{Connect} provides \lit{Connect::request_data()} to get the \class{DataDDS}. The \lit{request_data()} method accepts a constraint expression which can be used to restrict the data returned by the remote server. See \OPDuser\ for more information about constraint expression syntax.\footnote{The details of the constraint expression syntax are covered in The \xlink{DODS User Guide[constraint]} {\OPDuserUrl/constraint.html}.}

Use iterators to traverse the \class{DataDDS} and access the individual DAP data variable objects. The following example prints the DAP data objects declaration, to access the binary data returned by the server the DAP provides access methods to retrieve the data object's buffer contents.

 static void process_data(Connect &url, DDS *dds) { 

 if (verbose) cerr << "Server version: " << url.server_version() << endl;  for (DDS::Vars_iter i = dds.var_begin(); i != dds.var_end(); i++) { BaseType *v = *i ; v->print_decl(cout, "", true); smart_newline(cout, v->type()); } 

} 

The binary data returned by the server is stored in the \lit{_buf} member of each of the DAP's atomic data types. To retrieve the atomic data type's buffer contents the \lit{BaseType::buf2val} method is used.

 n_bytes = dds->var(q)->buf2val((void **) &localVar); 

The following C++ example is from the C++ Matlab client application and illustrates the use of the C++ DAP classes and methods to access elements from a \class{Sequence} data type.

 void ClientSequence::print_one_row(ostream &os, int row, string space, 

 bool print_row_num) {  const int elements = element_count(); for (int j = 0; j < elements; ++j) { BaseType *bt_ptr = var_value(row, j);  if (bt_ptr) { // data bt_ptr->print_val(os, space, true); } } } void ClientSequence::print_val_by_rows(ostream &os, string space,  bool print_decl_p, bool print_row_numners) {  const int rows = number_of_rows(); for (int i = 0; i < rows; ++i) { print_one_row(os, i, space, false); } 

} 

The C++ client uses rows and columns to access the individual elements of the \class{Sequence}. The C++ Matlab client uses two methods to accomplish the extraction, the first, \lit{print_val_by_row()} determines the number of rows in the \class{Sequence} and calls the \lit{print_one_row()} for each of the rows in the \class{Sequence}. The C++ DAP implementation of the \class{Sequence} data type provides the \lit{ var_value(row,col)} method to access the individual elements of the \class{Sequence}. The \lit{var_value()} method returns a \class{BaseType} pointer to the row, column element of the \class{Sequence}. To access the binary data value stored in that element, the \class{BaseType} method \lit{buf2val()} can be used. The preceding example simply prints the contents of the element, most client applications would assign the contents to a local variable in the workspace.

 void ClientArray::print_val(ostream &os, string, bool print_decl_p) { 

 if (print_decl_p) { os << type_name() << endl << var()->type_name() << " " << get_matlab_name() << " " << dimensions(true) << endl;  // Write the actual dimension sizes on a separate line. for (Pix p = first_dim(); p; next_dim(p)) os << dimension_size(p, true) << " ";  os << endl; }  for (int i = 0; i < length(); ++i) var(i)->print_val(os, "", false); 

} 

# 9 Notes

Here's a collection of information that might be important to specific clients but is hard to fit into a general tutorial.

• Because there are no meta data requirements to serve data via the OPeNDAP protocol, client applications may not find all the information they require to make use of the data. The DAP currently supports ancillary DAS files at the remote server site. In development is an Ancillary Information Service (AIS) which will permit these external meta data resources to be located with the remote data itself, at other remote server sites, or on the client. Any meta data augmented by the AIS will be clearly indicated in the attributes.
• It is the client application's responsibility to provide the initial base URLs to the remote server site. In development are data discovery services, including an ImportWizard which can query existing directory services such as the GCMD, to provide the base URLs to providers with installed OPeNDAP data servers.
• The DODS Project has developed two tools to help with serving datasets that contain many files. The first is to set up a `file server' a kind of catalog of URLs that is itself a DODS data set. The second is called the Aggregation Server (AS). The AS can automatically aggregate discrete datasets, accessed as either as files (in some cases) or URLs to produce a single data set. See the \OPDhome\ and/or contact tech support (\OPDsupport) for help with this.
• You can get help from the \OPDhome\, the \OPDtechList\ and the DODS user support desk (\OPDsupport).

\appendix

# 10 How the Java DAP library differs

(2)

Enumerations instead of iterators

Factory classes instead of virtual constructors

DAP core with separate client and server specializations via Java interfaces

The constraint evaluator is an object passed into the DDS (Java) rather than a set of methods embedded in the DDS (C++)

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