Following two decades of stability and increasing use, DAP2 is being superseded by DAP4, the first substantive revision in the history of the Data Access Protocol (DAP), an open-source endeavor led by OPeNDAP, Inc. The primary and continuing purpose of DAP is to realize remote, selective, data-retrieval as a widely-accepted and well-crafted Web service. This document outlines the fundamental concepts of DAP4, and (targeting those who have already programmed DAP-compatible clients and servers) it highlights how DAP4 differs from DAP2.
In the following, DAP refers to DAP4 unless indicated otherwise.
- 1 Data Retrieval as a Web Service
- 2 Understanding the DAP Data Model
- 3 Client Use of a DAP Data Source
- 4 The Formal DAP Specification
- 5 How DAP4 Differs from DAP2
- 6 Acknowledgments
1 Data Retrieval as a Web Service
The premise underlying DAP4 remains, as in DAP2, that values from data sources—or, notably, from proper subsets—along with pertinent metadata may be acquired remotely and effectively through an appropriately defined Web service, operated near the source data. To a surprising degree, DAP services shield users from idiosyncrasies in source-data formats and storage, so DAP functions as middleware with a further advantage: source-data and users may reside anyplace that has Internet connectivity. OPeNDAP's commitment to open source has fostered several DAP-compatible servers and an even larger number of DAP-compatible client environments, several of which (i.e., servers, clients and client-server libraries) are available at no cost.
DAP is designed for selectively retrieving (but not for storing) data organized as variables or groups of variables. It is well suited to cases where client computers retrieve data stored on remote computers (i.e., servers) networked to the client, especially where data sources are huge (comprising large arrays, e.g.) but clients typically need only small subsets of them. The protocol is fundamentally stateless (some might say “RESTful”), and it governs how clients pose requests and how servers issue corresponding responses.
DAP’s effectiveness is keyed on the underlying data model, which embraces a rich variety of data types (including tabular and array structures). Based on this model, DAP spells out the (type-specific) retrieval operations that clients may request. The flexibility and domain-neutrality of the DAP data model (which has changed modestly between DAP2 and DAP4) make it effective—as middleware, per the above—across a broad range of data types and disciplinary domains. Stated another way, many kinds of data sources and schemas can be mapped onto the DAP model for retrieval and use by client computers and software.
2 Understanding the DAP Data Model
2.1 A Brief Data-Model Summary
Unlike FTP and other protocols enabling clients to access whole files or granules, DAP offers sub-granular retrievals, and this requires exposing the detailed structure of each granule (called a “dataset” in DAP). To this end, the structure of every DAP-accessible dataset is manifest in a machine-readable document called the DMR. DMRs are declaration statements that adhere formally to the DAP Data Model, which is sufficiently general to make retrievable a variety of data granules and data types whose semantics vary widely among the (potential) sources.
The DAP data model is built around a notion of “variables” that fall into three classes—atoms, structures and sequences—and may be organized as multidimensional arrays. As reflected in its DMR, all of a dataset’s variables are named, and they may optionally be grouped (in a hierarchy) to add meaning and allow complex name-driven retrievals by clients. DAP variables are (strongly) typed and optionally may have “attributes” and “dimensions”, the former to clarify meaning and the latter to indicate a variable’s array shape (where relevant). Attributes resemble variables except that the former may be assigned to the latter, but not vice versa.
Much of DAP’s power arises from its typing structure. The value(s) of an atomic variable (whether or not dimensioned as an array) are all of the same atomic type, indicated in the DMR to be integer, floating point, character, string, etc. Structure variables are combinations of atom variables joined for semantic reasons, such as to represent complex numbers, vector-valued parameters, or other relationships among the values of a dataset.
To address a difficult abstraction challenge—retrievals from both array-oriented and database-oriented sources—DAP allows DMRs to declare variables of type “Sequence”. A sequence is like a relation, i.e., a table whose rows are “instances” or “records” and whose columns contain the values of “fields”. In DAP, the content of a sequence may comprise an arbitrary number of instances (i.e., records) whose “fields” are values from other DAP variables.
For example, a sequence named “BirdTracking” might contain variables named “BirdID”, “BandingEvent”, and “ObservedPosition”, and the contents of BirdTracking would be instances that contain values of the specified variables (fields). DAP allows arbitrary nesting of sequences and structures, so in this example BandingEvent could be a structure (containing date and location info for the bird’s banding) and ObservedPosition could be a sequence (containing equivalent date and location info) whose instances represent subsequent bird observations.
Hypothetically, this is akin to making BirdTracking a structure with a single dimension (though DAP does not allow arrays of indefinite length). However, selective retrieval from an array would require knowing the indices of desired instances, whereas a BirdTracking sequence allows filtering-style retrievals that select instances on the basis of their values.
2.2 A Rough Glossary of Data-Model Entities
Much about DAP may be discerned from a dictionary or glossary-like list of the key entities in its data model. Such a list follows, sequenced for ease of understanding (rather than alphabetically). These descriptions are not definitive, as the formal specification documents take precedence over anything stated here.
Data Source - Though formally outside the DAP Data Model, the term Data Source generally refers to all the datasets (see below) that may be retrieved via DAP from a single server, identified by its domain name. Servers sometimes offer (catalogs and/or inventories of) collections and sub-collections, but the DAP Data Model focuses on granular and sub-granular retrievals.
Dataset - Sometimes called a “granule” in catalog/inventory parlance, a DAP Dataset is represented by a unique (unadorned) URL, and is the highest-level entity (metadata as well as content) described by the DAP Data Model. Clients invoke retrieval operations by adorning the Dataset URL with suffixes and query strings interpreted by the server.
Declarations and the DMR - For a specific Dataset, all aspects of the DAP Data Model (name assignments, structural definitions, etc) are governed by a formal declarations document. Created as part of making a Dataset DAP-retrievable, this document is dubbed the DMR (roughly: Dataset Metadata Response), and clients may retrieve DMRs alongside or independently of Dataset contents.
Name - Most entities in the DAP Data Model may or must be named. With some constraints on the use of special characters (such as “.”), a Name can be any character string. To avoid conflicts, DAP has scoping rules. For example, a Variable and a Dimension may have the same Name without ambiguity, but two Variables can have the same Name only if they are declared in different Groups or structures.
Variable - The building blocks for the DAP Data Model are Variables, which are strictly typed. Three classes of them (atoms, structures and sequences) are described separately below, but in actuality these are best distinguished by inspecting their Type declarations. Each Variable must be assigned a Type and a Name, and it may optionally have a number of Dimensions and Attributes, elaborated below.
Type - Underpinning DAP’s “container” Types (Structure and Sequence, implied above) are “atomic” Types akin to those of computer languages: bytes, integers, floating-point values, strings, and URLs, plus an enum type (permitting specified character strings, such as days of the week, to be treated as variable values) and an opaque type (permitting arbitrary blobs of bits). More detailed Type descriptions are provided in Volume I of the DAP specification.
(Atom) Variable - A Variable whose Type is atomic (see above) comprises a single value or an array of values, and all its values are of the designated Type. A Variable is an array only if its declaration includes Dimensions, which determine the array’s shape and its element-ordering (see below).
(Structure) Variable - A Variable of Type “Structure” is a container for other variables, often implying relationships among them. For example, a structure Variable named “Velocity” might contain a pair of atom Variables (or fields) named “x” and “y,” representing components of a velocity vector. These components would be retrieved via their “qualified” Names, “Velocity.x” and “Velocity.y”.
Notes on Structures:
- Structures may contain variables of any type, including other structures.
- A contained variable can be used in the context of several containers, but these contexts create separate, independent instances.
- If the semantics of a variable are altered by its context, it should be separately declared in each relevant context. For example, declarations for the atoms “Velocity.x” and “Displacement.x” should be distinct and separate (falling within “Velocity” and “Displacement” declarations respectively) despite reuse of the name “x”.
- Though a dimensioned structure resembles a structure containing dimensioned variables (with the same shapes), these are not equivalent, and the means for referencing them differ. For example, array element i,j would be referenced as:
- Velocity[i,j].x if two dimensions are assigned to the Velocity structure.
- Velocity.x[i,j] if two dimensions are assigned to its x-component variable.
(Sequence) Variable - A Variable of Type “Sequence” is a container holding multiple (unordered) instances of other DAP Variables. For example, a sequence Variable named “TracerParticle” might contain a pair of structures named “Velocity” and “Displacement”, each declared—as in an earlier example—to have x and y components. The instances of TracerParticle would be like a set of tabular records whose four fields, Displacement.x, Displacement.y, Velocity.x, and Velocity.y are retrieved via filter-style (rather than indexed) retrievals, as discussed in a later section on Constraints.
Notes on Sequences:
- Sequences may contain variables of any type, including other sequences.
- Though a sequence is similar in some respects to a structure with a single (indexing) dimension, the differences are significant. For example, if a DAP server offers retrieval of records from a relational data base:
- The most useful client retrievals may entail filtering based on the values in the fields, and this yields indexing gaps. In other words, indexing may have little or no utility.
- The number of records may be hidden or dynamic, so a dimension length cannot be calculated, and the order in which records are returned may be volatile.
Group - The DAP Data Model has a hierarchical mechanism for grouping Variables and carving out independent namespaces. Groups may be nested, and all but one must have Names, the exception being the root of the hierarchy, where the Dataset itself is a Group (needing no name). Retrieving a Variable whose declaration falls within a Named Group requires use of its fully qualified name (FQN), such as GroupA.Group2.Velocity. Any Group (including the Dataset) may be assigned Attributes but not Dimensions.
Attribute - Otherwise nearly indistinguishable from a Variable, an Attribute must always be assigned to a specific Variable or Group. The purpose of Attributes is to provide context or add meaning to the assigned entities, whereas the purpose of Variables is to convey primary content. Retrieving an Attribute always requires prepending the name of the Variable or Group to which it is assigned, which implies that Attribute Names (such as “Units”) enjoy unlimited reusability.
Dimension - A Dimension must have a size and may have a Name. A Variable of any type may optionally be assigned a number of Dimensions, in which case its (compound) values are organized and retrieved as an indexible array of rank n, where n is the number of assigned Dimensions.
Notes on Dimensions:
- Named Dimensions resemble named constants. Indeed, assigning a named dimension to multiple variables (within the scope of a single group) has the same effect on each, giving definition to that variable’s array shape and array-element ordering.
- Unlike attributes, dimensions often are declared outside the variables to which they are assigned. Groups may not accept dimension assignments, but groups limit the scope of the dimension names and sizes declared within them.
- Dimensions names may be reused, with differing sizes across multiple groups.
- The order of the dimension assignments in a variable declaration is significant, as this determines the variable’s array-element ordering as well as its shape.
- Retrieving a dimension may require prepending the name of the group in which it was declared but never the name of a variable to which it has been assigned.
- A Dimension’s size must be a positive integer less than 2^61.
2.3 Higher-Level DAP Objects and Extensions
Shared Dimensions that serve to indicate relations between different arrays which can be used to build/represent Coverages...
Note: Though adoption to-date has been most pronounced in Earth sciences, DAP’s data types and structures (with the possible exception of coverages, discussed in this section) are not at all specific to these disciplines, so we think DAP is positioned for effective use in many domains, scientific and otherwise.
3 Client Use of a DAP Data Source
3.1 High-Level Info about DAP Datasets: the DMR
A client's first step in selectively retrieving a data source often is to discern the character (i.e., its schema) by requesting what DAP calls the DMR (the data-source metadata response). A DMR provides a complete characterization of the associated data source sans content, spelling out its groups, variables, types, dimensions, and attributes as discussed in the preceding two subsections. For ease of use in client software, the DMR adheres to a formal syntax and most often is delivered as an XML document, though other forms are anticipated as DAP4 extensions.
Though it is common to retrieve its DMR prior to requesting content from a data source, this is not the only option. Indeed, a "Data Request" under DAP returns both the DMR and the content (i.e., the values of variables) for the designated data source, because the former is critical for interpreting the latter.
3.2 Retrieving Content from DAP Datasets: Posing DAP Requests
Under DAP, the requests clients make of servers, and the resulting server responses, are all governed by the protocol specification. As stated previously, the formal specification takes precedent over anything stated here.
For each data source, a number of responses may elicited by a client, determined by adding a suffix and/or a query string to the basic URL for the desired data source. Passing the server a completely unadorned URL yields a Dataset Services Response (DSR). This XML document describes the various DAP services available for that source, and these always include provision of a DMR and provision of content from the source. Unlike the DMR, which is always textual, content (delivered in response to a Data Request, as discussed above) may be conveyed in textual or binary form, the latter minimizing data-transfer volumes, of course.
If the URL for a Data Request includes a query string, the server parses this string to determine what data processing the server should perform before constructing its Data Response. Though other classes of pre-retrieval processing are anticipated to be defined via DAP extensions, two forms are mandated by DAP4 for all servers, Index Subsetting and Field Subsetting, and a third form, Filtering, is defined in the core DAP specification, though its implementation by servers is optional.
Index Subsetting - Choosing parts of an array based on the indexes of that array's dimensions. This operation always returns an array of the same rank as the original, although the size of the return array will (likely) be smaller. Index subsetting uses the bracket syntax described later.
Field Subsetting - Choosing specific variables or fields from the dataset. A dataset in DAP4 is made up of a number of variables and those may be Structures or Sequences that contain fields (and, in effect, the Dataset is itself a Structure and all of its variables are fields - the distinction is more convenience than formal). Field subsetting using the brace syntax described later. One or more fields can be specified using a semicolon (;) as the separator.
Filtering - A filter is a predicate that can be used to choose data elements based on their values. the vertical bar (|) is used as a prefix operator for the filter predicate. Filters can be applied to elements of an Array or fields of a Sequence. A filter predicate consists of one or more filter subexpressions. One or more subexpressions can be specified, using a comma (,) as the separator.
Other services listed in the DSR might (at the server's option) include the DAP Asynchronous Response. Where implemented (such as for near-line data sources), this response is sent to the client when the requested resource (DMR, Data Response, etc.) is not immediately available. If, in turn, the client makes a "retrieve it" request, the server will respond with a second Asynchronous Response informing the client about when and where the requested resource may be retrieved.
In addition to the most common data objects, a DAP server may provide additional "services," such as HTML-formatted representations of a data source's structure and content. Such additional services are discussed in Volume 2 of the specification.
4 The Formal DAP Specification
The DAP4 specification spans two volumes: one describes the Data Model and DAP’s Request/Response objects; the other volume describes how DAP clients and servers communicate via HTTP and the modern Web. New volumes about DAP Extensions will be added as they emerge.
Partitioning the specification into two primary documents reflects the independence of DAP’s data-retrieval functionality from the underlying network transfer protocol. Indeed, DAP could be used with other transports. However, utilizing HTTP eases the building of DAP servers because they can take full advantage of widely used Web-server frameworks such as Apache. Use of Extensions documents will enable evolution of the protocol without the expense and complexity of another major protocol-development project. Anticipated extensions include a JSON encoding for DAP data/metadata and the provision of server functions (beyond DAP’s core subsetting and filtering operations).
The specification is available at these links:
- Volume 1: Data Model, Persistent Representation, and Constraints
- Volume 2: Web Services Specification
5 How DAP4 Differs from DAP2
Though the protocol, per se, is maintained primarily by OPeNDAP, many others have engaged in DAP2 realization. One implementation—by Unidata, in the University Corp. for Atmospheric Research—includes the popular THREDDS Data Server (TDS). A key motivation for DAP4, developed jointly by OPeNDAP and Unidata, was to reduce differences that have arisen, and impede interoperability, among DAP2 realizations. Our hope is that a modernized, clearer and more comprehensive specification will facilitate building clients and servers with greater interoperability, making such ventures more rewarding and less risky.
This section covers changes to the data model, response formats, and serialization, giving developers a roadmap to migration from DAP2 to DAP4. E.g., the “Grid” type now supports a notion of discrete functions similar to an OGC/ISO Discrete Coverage and to the Scientific Data Type found in Unidata’s Common Data Model (CDM). Also from this section, users may learn of functionalities to seek in clients. E.g., DAP4 servers return checksums with each data response, but clients may utilize these in varying degrees.
DAP4 is largely an extension of DAP2 concepts, including ideas that emerged as DAP gained prominence across the Earth sciences. Therefore DAP2-compatible software, in clients or servers, should be easy to adapt to DAP4, and this has been affirmed in the OPeNDAP-Unidata realization and testing work. Furthermore, DAP4 exhibits backward compatibility sufficient to enable gradual transitioning. Substantive changes include support for Groups, yielding greater compatibility with HDF and NetCDF4.
5.1 Data-Model Changes
Summary: DAP4 now supports groups, a generalized form of a grid datatype and a few new atomic types.
The DAP4 data model is fundamentally similar to that for DAP2. New atomic types include: enumeration, 64-bit integer, and opaque, and the container types now include groups. Groups provide a way to organize collections of variables and dimensions and to encode these organizational relationships when they are present in the underlying source data.
Dimensions may now be named, and the presence of shared dimensions (i.e., several variables employ a dimension with a given name) along with explicitly name 'maps' serves to indicate relationships among arrays that can, in turn, be used to build/represent a more general form of the DAP2 Grid datatype that resembles the OGC/ISO "discrete coverage" datatype. These 'discrete coverages' subsume the role of DAP2 Grids, so the latter have been removed from DAP4.
Migrating from DAP2 to DAP4
For servers: A DAP2 DDS/DAS (or DDX) is very close to a DAP4 DMR (indeed, our C++ library contains a way to build a DMR from a DDS). The set of datatypes supported by DAP4 is almost a proper superset of those in DAP2, the exception being that DAP2's Grid type has been removed. To represent a DAP2 Grid in DAP4, the components of the DAP2 Grid are retained and the appropriate Shared Dimension and Map elements are added to the dataset/group and array. Since the DAP4 'discrete coverage' type subsumes the DAP2 Grid, it will always be possible to translate a DAP2 Grid into DAP4
For clients: Some of the new data types are more challenging to implement than the types included with DAP2. Of particular note are Enumerations and the expanded grid (aka 'discrete coverage') types.
5.2 Changed Responses
Summary or the main changes between DAP2 and DAP4 Responses:
- DAP4 includes only one dataset metadata response, not two;
- Several Sequences may be individually constrained in one access;
- Predictable behavior for 'bare' URLs; and
- Asynchronous responses
In DAP4 there is a single XML document that encodes the metadata for a data source. This response is conceptually similar to, and in some ways identical too, the DDX response that is supported by many DAP2 servers, so it's organization will be familiar to many people already. As with DAP2, there is one data response that can be modified (constrained) using a expression to limit the information it includes. The basic concepts of slicing an array are unchanged in DAP4. We've taken care to allow servers to extend the information passed into the data retrieval web service, a topic that is covered in a bit more detail below under web services. We have replaced the selection part of the DAP2 constraint expression with a filter sub-expression that is applied to specific variables. This enables two or more Sequences to have their own filtering operations (before that was not possible). Our expanded constraint language also provides a way to subset coverages, and a proposed extension to the filtering sub-expression provides a way to subset arrays/coverages by value.
We wanted DAP4 to fully embrace REST. DAP2, even though it predates the term, including many, but not all, of the REST architecture's features. One change from DAP2 was to explicitly define what happens when a client dereferences a 'bare URL' (one without an extension used to ask for a specific DAP4 response). When a DAP4 sever is asked to return information at a bare URL, the result is a Dataset Services Response (DSR) which contains links to all of the other responses for that dataset. In addition, the DSR may contain other information such as server operations that can be used with the dataset. The DSR is an XML document but can contain a stylesheet that transforms it to HTML for a web browser.
DAP4 servers can also support asynchronous access to data, which enables access to data from near-line devices and can be used for some server processing operations (e.g., operations that take a long time to perform). Asynchronous responses are responses that contain a URL that can be used to retrieve the actual data at some time in the future. The protocol has been designed to reduce the chance that a client will mistakenly make a large number of asynchronous requests since this could present an undue burden on some kinds of near-line devices.
Migrating from DAP2 to DAP4
- If your server or client already reads DAP2 DDX responses (which were never part of the official protocol but are widely used) then adapting to the DMR will be very easy since they are very close in structure.
- Support for the new constraints may take a bit more work since now the Constraint Expression and Server Functions have been separated.
- Clients will benefit from asynchronous response support, but this is a new behavior and may take some serious thought, particularly for clients that relied on the simpler semantics borrowed from file system accesses.
5.3 Response-Encoding Changes
- Checksums for data values;
- Reliable delivery of error messages to clients;
- Encode data using the server's native word order.
We have added three changes to the encoding of returned data values. All top-level variables in a data response now include a CRC32 checksum of their values. This enables people to see if a request is returning the same data values as it did previously. The checksum values are encoded in Attributes bound to the returned variables. We have added an encoding scheme for data values that preserves compactness yet allows clients to easily detect when a server has encountered an error while sending a response. Similarly, we have adopted a Reader Make Right encoding scheme instead of the network byte order scheme used by DAP2. The latter has become more and more important as the predominance of little-endian processors has increased.
Migrating from DAP2 to DAP4
In many ways the encoding scheme is simpler for servers because the data response uses the server's native byte order. Clients must detect the byte order and twiddle bytes as needed. However, the server must correctly implement the chunking protocol used by the data response and must correctly computer CRC32 checksums for each of the top level variables.
5.4 Changes in the Use of HTTP
Summary: DAP4 is closer than DAP2 to the REST (Representational State Transfer) architecture, and it uses HATEOS (Hypermedia As The Engine Of Application State), making all of the server's responses explicit via links in a document.
While DAP2 interwove the DAP and HTTP, using, for example, some of the HTTP headers as the only source of information that was critical to the DAP itself, DAP4 does not. Instead, DAP4 is completely isolated from HTTP, enabling it to work with other protocols without change. However, in as much as HTTP is a ubiquitous network transport protocol, the DAP4 specification includes a volume devoted solely to how a server should implement DAP4 web services using HTTP.
The REST interface for the protocol is described in Volume 2, Web Services, of the specification. DAP4 requires that a server implement at least three responses for each dataset: The DSR; DMR; and Data response. The DSR is a XML document that provides a capabilities response for the dataset. This document provides links to all of the other responses available for the dataset, along with other information. The DSR provides information about alternative encodings for the different responses in addition to enumerating the basic responses themselves. The DSR may also list server functions that may be used with/on the dataset.
DAP4 servers are encouraged to support HTTP content negotiation, providing the standard DSR, DMR and Data responses in a variety of forms.
Migrating from DAP2 to DAP4
The web service for DAP4 will likely need to be written from scratch, but the good news is that those are easy to write. For clients, the behavioral differences between DAP2 and DAP4 servers are small, with two exceptions. Since DAP4 optionally supports asynchronous responses, clients should be modified to access data available only using this new feature. DAP4 also supports content negotiation and that means a larger number of ways to get the different responses (even though each protocol has three basic responses).
DAP4 is the result of a joint, multiyear development effort by OPeNDAP and Unidata, funded by a generous grant from NOAA and guided by an advisory committee comprising Mike Folk (THG), Jim Frew (UCSB), Steve Hankin (NOAA), Eric Kihn (NOAA), Chris Lynnes (NASA) and Rich Signell (USGS).